Copyright (C) by Noelene Rout 17th September 2007
All rights reserved.
The word elephant originates from the Hebrew word elaph which means ivory. Elephants are found in the grassland forests of west, central and southern Africa, African wildlife parks, the far east, and the tropical rain forests of India. The most noticeable features of elephant’s are their long ivory tusks and long flexible trunks. Elephants African bush elephants are the largest land living mammals. Mammals with trunks are called proboscidea. Modern day elephants evolved from the now extinct woolly mammoth.
There are two races of elephants in Africa, the African bush elephant and the African forest elephant, the latter being smaller in size. The Indian or Asiatic elephant is a completely different species of elephant.
An elephants trunk is a long and strong flexible pipe tube. The pipe, tube trunk is the elephants upper lip, and nose. The elephant uses its trunk as a nose, an arm, and a hand, and it uses the tip of its trunk to pick up items as small as a peanut.
Two of the elephants canine teeth grow out of its mouth like horns, the horns which continue to grow are worn down as the elephant digs them into the earth, into stone, into fruit, and into the trunks of trees. Some elephants have one tusk worn down more shorter than the other, that is because the elephants like us favour using their right, or left, hand tusk. Sometimes an elephant’s tusk gets broken off during a courting battle and the tusk festers and aches, which causes the elephant to behave in an irritable manner.
Elephants charge at a speed of 48 kilometer’s an hour, they trot between 8 and 10 kilometer’s an hour and gracefully and silently walk on the tips of their toes on padded flat feet which are about 150 centimeter’s round. The padded foot of an elephant contracts and expands as the elephant raises and lowers its foot.
10 I have seen the travail, which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.
11 He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end. The Holy Bible Ecclesiastes 3:10,11
Elephants are slaughtered for their ivory, their meat, and the hair of their tails which is used by some Africans to make bracelets, they are used as beasts of burden, they carry dignitaries, Hindu’s, who regard them as holy, use them in their religious processions and their rites, they were used during wars, they are used to perform in circuses, and zoos, and because their forests are being destroyed by man, they are now found in wildlife parks where they may be slaughtered for money, and where limited space denies them the right to freely exercise while roaming far and wide with herds, occupying their time by foraging for food, and bathing in rivers, and rolling in the dust, and pushing and tearing down trees, satisfying their curiosity, and enormous apetites.
Elephants are vegetarians. A large part of the elephants time is spent foraging for food. Elephants eat about 130 kg of vegetation a day. Fussy eaters, they will wash earth from clumps of grass and snap blossoms to release their smells. The diet of an elephant consists of roots, grass, blossoms, twigs, bark, and fruits. Elephants use the versatility of their trunks to harvest their various foods. Feeding elephants uproot and push over trees, they break off branches, and uproot bushes and shrubs, and scatter vegetation all over the place.
Elephants, who live in herds of up to 50 members, are led by the strongest male and female, the female cow is called the matriarch. Indian elephants are led by the matriarch. The herd, which is made up of three or four family units, their offspring, their grandchildren, and a colony of adult bulls, is fiercely protected by the strongest sire bull, and also by one another. All of the elephants live by rules, and they all help one another, and in the case of an emergency the herd of elephants will act together. The strength and foundation of a society of elephants is, “The Family Unit.” Each family unit of elephants is led by the oldest and strongest female. Families stick together. Young elephants are cared for by their mother’s for many many years, and daughters only leave the family unit if it splits into another unit when the family grows too large, and then, the daughters lead the groups. Within matriarchal units there are always adult females available to help care for and raise the young. Calves who are orphaned or rejected by their mothers are cared for by the community. Young bulls generally leave the herd, or are expelled when they reach the age of sexual maturity, which is between 12 and 16 years. Young bulls who are expelled fight their way back into the bull colony where the strongest bulls mate with the females, and maintain the strength of the herd. The survival of an elephant herd is dependent upon these laws. Outcast bulls, adolescents, and weak bulls live in male herds, some bulls spend their lives living by themselves .
Elephants, who eat tons of vegetation during the coolest hours of the day, exhaust their food supplies and move on their ways. Elephants spend a great deal of time looking for and eating food.
Elephants need to drink about 130 litres of water a day, bathing in the water to keep themselves cool, the elephants shed old dust as they plaster their bodies with mud to protect themselves from the stings of insect bites in the heat of tropical days, and with their trunks held high in the air, elephants walk and swim across rivers on their migratory routes which trail rivers for hundreds of kilometer’s. Elephants bathe in cool dust, and they use patches of mud, and water holes when streams of water are not in sight.
Standing elephants sleep beneath cool and shady trees during the hottest hours of the day, and some with heads on pillows of grass, at midnight, snore on the ground where they lay.
Elephants reassure one another with physical contact, constantly touching one another, they rub their bodies and heads together, and put the tips of their trunks in one another’s mouths. Elephants use gestures and behaviour patterns to communicate with one another, and to show their emotions and needs. Young and frisky calves are disciplined by their mothers with cuffs upon their trunks, and the youngsters are restrained by mother’s, who grab onto their tails. Little travelling elephants hold onto their mother’s or sister’s tails.
Angry elephants trumpet and screech, and elephant’s rumble as they eat. The rumbles which come from their larynx, are a sign of reassurance to other elephants who are feeding away from the herd, but when the rumblings stop, danger is lurking near, and the herd gathers together to deal with the threat. Elephants chase away intruders by using dummy threats. Dummy charges are used by young bulls when they are testing one another’s strength, or simply during adolescent play.
Elephants are non-aggressive, gentle giants. Violent rogue elephants are usually afflicted with injuries and experiencing pain.
Charging elephants trumpet and snort and trample on the ground, and with their ears held back and trunks to the side, their tusks and foreheads are displayed.
Courting & Mating.
Animals (Elephants) copulate (have sex). 5674 of Job 21:10 Courting is the time when a bull and a cow get to know one another before they engage in sex. Female elephants reach puberty between 9 and 10 years of age. They are sexually receptive for three months of a year, and are able to get pregnant on about four occasions during that time. Bulls reach the age of sexual maturity at about 11 years of age, and are eager to mate at any time after that. Elephants do not take partners for life, within a herd, dominant bulls mate with the females. Senior bulls assert their rights to mate by fighting and driving competitive bulls away. When a senior bull is dethroned, driven away, or killed, many dominant bulls may mate with the females until another dominant bull takes over the herd. The senior positions in a herd are won by bulls when they are about 26 years of age.
During courting the male and the female get to know one another, and they get around together, they playfully chase and fight one another, they touch and stroke one another, they feed one another, and they wind their trunks together, and place the tips of their trunks in each others mouths, and they rub their bodies together, and bath together and the bull touches the cows genital area with his trunk to see if she is ready to mate, and he lays his trunk upon her back to let her know he is ready to have sex, and the elephants mate for about 3 minutes every two or three hours over a period of four or five days. When the female is pregnant she loses interest in sex and also the bull, whom she then ignores or chases away.
The positions of older bulls in a herd are given to younger bulls when the old bulls have outlived their usefulness. Toothless old bulls with broken tusks are either expelled from the herd, or they leave the herd together or alone of their own accord. Living by swamps where the vegetation is soft, the old bulls feed on soft vegetation, and slowly starve to death, or, are shot by poachers or, farmers.
Pregnant female cows are very important members of a herds family unit, which is the foundation of elephant society. Cows who carry their calves for between 18 and 22 months, calve at about the age of 12 years. A moving herd of African elephants will stop when a cow is ready to give birth, and the herd will trumpet as they surround the cow and her female assistant, aunt (midwife) to protect the area from prowling predators. A pregnant Indian elephant and her assistant clear an area beneath a tree and place foliage around the area before the birth takes place, while the whole herd trumpets and screams to keep predators away. When a calf is born the auntie helps it to stand up on its feet, while the mother eats the hormone and vitamin enriched afterbirth which helps her body stimulate the production of milk and cleans up the mess. Vultures hover around when a calf is due to be born, they can smell the afterbirth and they gather together, hoping the calf will be born dead, and provide them with a delicious free feed. A mother elephant will fiercly protect her calf, even if it is born dead.
When a calf is born it has hair on its body, it has a tiny trunk which it will spend 6 months learning to use, it has milk tusks which are called tushes, and its ears are flat. Newborn elephant calves weigh between 90 and 112 kg and are about 1 meter tall. It takes a young calf, with the help of an aunt, about 1/2 an hour to stand on its feet after it is born. When the calf is able to stand it searches for its mother’s teat and drinks her warm and rich fresh milk. Young calves spend most of the first year of their life standing under their mother’s body in safety between her legs. About two days after the birth when the calf is able to walk properly, the mother and her calf will rejoin the herd. After a calf has been born, the mother cannot get pregnant again for about year. The calf will drink milk from its mother for between 4 and 7 years. Cows can suckle more than one calf at a time. Young elephants depend upon their mother’s until they are about 9 years of age. Elephant mother’s are the center of strong family units for many years.
Tigers, lions, snakes, hyenas and man. Many young elephants are killed by trees that fall upon them, by drowning, or by an accidental killing in an elephant herd. Tigers, lions, snakes and hyenas prey on baby elephants. Elephants drive their attackers away.
The growing calf.
Mother’s raise, educate, discipline and protect their frisky and inquisitive calves with help from their older daughters. Females stay within family units bearing, and helping to raise young under matriarchal guidance.
Young calves learn about family hierarchy, and the rules which govern elephant society, and how to behave within the society as they play among themselves, their older brother’s and sisters, and their friends, under the watchful eyes of their families and also predators.
Elephants are killed by man, by snakes, by falling, by drowning and by foot and mouth disease. Many elephants reach old age and die of natural causes.
Sick or injured elephants.
Predators prey upon sick elephants. Elephants help one another when they are sick. Elephants who are trapped or, who have fallen and injured themselves are helped to safety where they are protected by other elephants until they are well enough to care for themselves. A herd of elephants does not enjoy abandoning the elephant they are unable to rescue. Elephants try to get sick elephants up and onto their feet. The lungs of a fallen elephant are crushed by the elephants weight and the elephant dies by suffocation. Elephants protect sick and injured elephants, by standing guard, by threatening, by trumpeting, and by charging predators who are interested in them. When a herd of elephants does not notice a sick or injured mother, her young calf will stay with her and also lose its life. Young calves who refuse to leave their mother’s dead carcases are abandoned by the herd.
Elephants plaster mud upon themselves to stop their skin from drying out, to protect it from irritating bites, and to cleanse and heal wounds. To prevent sunstroke they pile branches upon their heads, and to clean out (purge) their stomaches they eat a combination of rich mineral earth and leaves.
Death & dying.
Elephants comfort dying members of their herd by touching them with their trunks. Bull elephants try to mate with dying females in an attempt to bring them back to life. Elephants respect their dead, and they comfort bereaved calves. A herd of elephants may spend many days with the carcase of one of their dead, and mourning mother’s carry their dead calves about upon their trunks. Elephants bury dead animals, and elephants and also other obejects by covering them with vegetation.
Dead elephants bones.
Elephants recognize and are fascinated with the bones of dead elephants. They carry them around in their mouths, and toss them from trunk to trunk, they even chew the bones to obtain calcium from them. Elephants bury dead elephant bones.
Elephants use their heads to push and shove over trees.
Designed for strength, the skeleton of an elephant allows great mobility.
An elephants skull which weighs about 5kg is full of air-filled cavities called sinuses. The skull, which is large, accomodates the elephants large jaw and jaw muscles, and bears the weight of the tusks.
The brain of an elephant weighs about 7 kg.
Large, weighing around 17kg it beats about 35 times a minute.
An elephants intestines are over 36 m long.
Ears & Hearing.
Elephants who have good hearing, use their large ears as fans to fan blood which flows through millions of tiny blood vessels in their skin to keep their bodies cool.
Eyes & eyelashes.
An elephants small eyes are protected by eyelashes which are about 75 -mm long.
An elephants mouth is small.
Elephants have six sets of molar teeth which are covered with plates of enamel that are stuck together to make a surface which grinds. The plates of enamel increase in number as the elephants grow old. An elephants first set of molars have three enamelled plates while the sixth set has nine. One tooth functions at a time in the lower and upper jaw, and every part of an elephants tooth is used up before the tooth falls out. An elephants large molar tooth weighs about 4.5 kg. When an elephants teeth are worn away the elephant is no longer able to chew its food and the elephant pines away as it miserably dies of starvation. Elephants need dental care!
The tongue of an elephant contains tastebuds, and the elephant uses the tip of its sensitive tongue to test its food.
Elephants use their trunks to lift trees up out of the earth, to reach up high into the air standing on their hind legs if necessary to pick off tiny leaves and pull branches down to the ground, to reach down into clefts while down on their knees, to reach around corners, to tear bark from trees, and to pick up tiny blossoms and berries and other foods, and to suck up water, and shower themselves or squirt it into their mouths. With their trunks, elephants can smell water beneath the ground during droughts, and they burrow the earth with their trunks, and digging into the ground with their tusks and forefeet, they drink muddy water from the ground. An African elephants trunk is ridged, while the trunk of the Indian elephant is smooth. If an elephant loses or injures its trunk it will eat and drink on its knees, but the elephant will eventually die of starvation.
An elephant that cannot reach high enough with its trunk will stand up upon its back legs.
The trunk of an elephant is used as a nose to smell odours in the air, and to get water, while the sensitive tip of the trunk is used for feeling, touching, and for picking up objects and food. Elephants test their food with the tips of their trunks before placing it into their mouths.
African bush elephant. male.
Height: 3.5 m at the shoulder.
Ears: 1 m outstretched.
Tusks: upturned, each weighing 55 kg and 3 m long.
Forest bush elephant.
A smaller darker elephant with round ears, a concave back, and flat forehead.
Indian or Asiatic elephant.
Height: 2.5 m at the shoulder.
Ears: smaller than the African elephants.
Tusks: upturned, smaller than the African elephants. Females have tiny tusks or none at all. The Sumatran
subspecies of elephant are tuskless.
Elephants are highly intelligent animals, they imagine things, they have the power to think, they have emotions, they have feelings, they experience pain when they are afflicted, they suffer, and they mourn as they caress elephant bones and remember their beloved dead. Biblical & common, knowledge.
In the teak forests of Burma elephants are poked in sensitive parts of their bodies with pointed goads as they are made to destroy forests and do the work of bulldozers. One elephant does the work of four bulldozers.
Wildlife parks an zoos.
Elephants are found in wildlife parks and zoos.
The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. Psalm 24:1
For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.
I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the field are mine. Psalm 50:10,11
A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast: but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. Proverbs 12:10 God is righteous! Daniel 9:14
Wandering elephants who roam far and wide in search of food, are threatened with extinction by man who is destroying their habitats forests, and killing them for their ivory, the hair of their tails, their meat, and for sport.
And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth. Revelation 11:18
The day of judgment began 2000 years ago. John 12:31 The presence of Jesus Christ is in this earth now Matthew 28:20 and people are being destroyed for destroying the earth. Ezekiel 3:18
The future of the elephant is determined by space. One African elephant destroys and eats vegetation in an area of 260 hectares per day. Each herd of elephants requires hundreds of tons of vegetation every year. Elephants need large feeding areas in order for the destroyed area of grassland to recover, and the period of recovery takes up to 40 years. The Earth’s elephants are living in 1,813 million hectares, which is only a seventh of the territory they once occupied. Elephants require space.
Human beings also require space, but should people be allowed to overpopulate the earth, destroying all of the Earth’s wildlife in order to preserve themselves.
How much space does one human family need to survive, and how large should that person’s family be? Has any one measured the Earth and determined how many families it can accomodate along with its wildlife in order for the Earth to survive?
Christians and their descendents will be living upon this earth in the future, in fact, it is Christianity that is going to win, convert (fill) the Earth, Isaiah 11:9..Daniel 2:35 so, it is up to Christians to do something about 1) Global warming, 2) The destruction of forests and plants, 3) The diminishing numbers of wildlife populations, and 4) The rapidly increasing populations of people upon this Earth.
Elephants from National Parks whose browsing spaces threaten (elephant populations with mass starvation) elephant survival because they are not large enough to accomodate the massive feeding cycles of elephants are being shot by crop farmers for spoiling their crops as they try to follow their traditional migratory routes, which are not covered by the Parks. The Elephant will become extinct by the end of the century if it is not given its Migratory Routes and SPACE!
When elephants are culled to make space for man traumatized, and bereaved, mourning elephants become mentally unstable for the rest of their lives.
Bracelets of elephant hair.
Show Africans how to make beautiful bracelets from other colorful materials.
Note: Teach the Chinese people how to stay healthy, how to get exercise and fresh air. Show them how to cure diseases without the use of animal parts. Tell them that many of the diseases they are suffering from probably come from the sexually promiscuous carcases of the dead carrion eating animals that they are taking in to their bodies as medicines.
Elephants of old. Woolly Mammoths.
Wool grows upon the bodies of animals. 2 Kings 3:4..Sheep grow hair that is shorn off. 1 Samuel 25:2..The Youngs Analytical concordance to the Bible defines the Greek word “thrix” as hair, wool, and feathers.. Matthew 3:4, 5:36, 10:30..Mark 1:6..Luke 7:38,44..12:7..21:18..John 11:2…12:3..Acts 27:34..1 Peter 3:3.. Revelation 1:14..9:8..A sheeps hair is wool..Wool grows on sheep (lambs and rams). 2 Kings 3:4..Wool can be shaggy. 6785 of 6015
Shaggy 5569..6785..8163..Some wool is shaggy. Leviticus 13:47..6785..Shaggy wool. 6785 of 6015.. Wool..2053..Linen and Woollen 8162
Shaggy: covered with rough hair or wool, tousled unkempt.
Tousled: ruffled, tangled, untidy.
Unkempt: untidy, not combed, slovenly.
Slovenly: careless, disorderly, untidy, dirty.
The frozen remains of a shaggy elephant like animal whom Scientists have named, a Woolly Mammoth were found preserved in ice in Siberia, and pictures of the mammoths, painted by primative peoples have been found on the walls of caves all over the earth. Woolly mammoths became extinct about 10,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene age.
Meat. Endangered species.
26 And thy carcase shall be meat unto all [devils Luke 8:5,12] fowls of the air, and unto the [kingdoms. Daniel 7:23] beasts of the earth, and no man shall fray them away. Deuteronomy 28:26
What is meat? Devils and their kingdom “Hades, Sheol, 7585 of Psalm 9:17 The world upon this earth, live in, through and off sinners, their partners, their children, and their animals and creatures” The Holy Bible Deuteronomy 28:15- 68
Take a look at Mary, the captive, hungry and thirsty elephant, who rebelled when her sweet piece of water melon was taken away from her, look at how she was grievously tortured and horrifically murdered after she went into a frenzy for being deprived of a piece of food that she had found, believed was hers, and wanted to eat. Look at how some members of a city are still making money from the story of her sufferings.“MARY”.Press the back button to return to this page.
15 But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee: Deuteronomy 28:15 Read verses 16-68 to see those curses. Look at the curses that came upon, and still are, upon, Mary, the elephant who belonged to a sinner.
The Holy Bible..Bible Concordances..The Internet..The Library..Dictionaries..My little encyclopedia..”A closer look at ELEPHANTS” by John Holbrook. Hamish Hamilton Childrens Books Ltd 90 sell Street London WC1B 3PT..Endangered Species Our Impact On the Planet by Malcom Penny Hodder Wayland childrens Books.
Any errors within my pages are not intentional.
No reply required & I don’t want to purchase anything. Thank You. Noelene.